This is a reprinted article by Professor Ludwik Ehrlich, an eminent expert on public international law from the Jan Kazimierz University in Lwów, which was written as a lecture for the judges and – as can be deduced from the scarce information – was originally delivered as part of a series of lectures organized by the Lwów branch of the Association of Judges and Prosecutors of the Republic of Poland. It was published in the third issue (for May-June) of 1939 (probably the last) of the „Czasopismo Sędziowskie” (“Magazine of the Judges”), an organ of the said branch of the Lwów Association. The reprinted article is not known in the literature. It is also not mentioned in official statements of Ludwik Ehrlich’s publications. Probably Ludwik Ehrlich himself deliberately did not include this publication in post-war compilations of his published works. Due to the author’s interesting observations on a comparative background, it may seem interesting – also in the context of the dispute that has been ongoing for years concerning the role of a judge and court in the structure of state organs and the judge’s attitude towards law.
Keywords: judge, judicary, independence, impartiality, irremovability, fairness, Polish judiciary, European judiciary, English judiciary, American judiciary
This article is published in Polish.