The article deals with an issue of understanding of the concepts indicated in the title which are subject of interpretation of courts and tribunals at a national and European level. The aim of the analysis is to find out how the above phrases are understood and to propose a way to organize them. The proper meaning of the terms: “independence”, and “impartiality” is not only theoretically and practically significant, but is also currently under discussion. The consideration of these terms is therefore of fundamental importance for the functioning of the entire legal system.
Keywords: independence, independence, impartiality, courts, judges
This article is published in Polish